Lactose Intolerance DNA Test

Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk and dairy products. In most people the ability to digest lactose significantly decreases after the second year of life.

When the body ceases to effectively digest lactose, taking milk, dairy products and other products that contain lactose in traces (bread, cereals, instant soups, snacks …) can cause various problems such as abdominal pain, cramps, bloating, flatulence, nausea and diarrhea.

Lactose intolerance causes digestive problems that can significantly reduce the quality of life. If such symptoms occur in children, they should never be ignored.

Frequency of lactose intolerance in the Central European population is about 20%. A majority of people with such symptoms suspect this diagnosis but they have never been tested.

It is important to distinguish lactose intolerance from milk allergy. Lactose intolerance is a problem of the digestive system due to the insufficient activity of the enzyme that breaks down lactose, while milk allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more proteins in cow’s milk. The symptoms of lactose intolerance become apparent in early childhood or adolescence.

If you have gastrointestinal problems that are related to the symptoms mentioned above (especially after consuming milk and / or dairy products), it is recommended to do a lactose intolerance test.


Koje su metode testiranja?

Postoji više načina testiranja intolerancije laktoze, međutim većina testova često je iscrpljujuća i bolna jer se temelji na izazivanju simptoma i invazivnosti, a često su i manje osjetljivi te nedovoljno specifični. Ti problemi ne postoje kod metode pirosekvenciranja stoga ona daje najpouzdanije rezultate. Ova se metoda ne temelji na hvatanju simptoma i posljedica intolerancije, nego otkriva sam uzrok problema – genetičku predodređenost zbog koje se simptomi i javljaju tj. nedvojbeno otkriva postoji li genetička osnova za moguću manifestaciju intolerancije ili ne. Otkrivanje genetičke podloge za postojanje intolerancije prije nego se pojave karakteristični simptomi, omogućava da se odgovarajućom prehranom potpuno izbjegne pojava simptoma.


Kako se provodi DNA testiranje intolerancije laktoze?

Testiranje se provodi analizom DNA iz uzorka brisa sluznice usne šupljine.
Postupak uzimanja uzorka u potpunosti je bezbolan i traje svega 10-15 sekundi.
Test je bezbolan i 100% učinkovit.


Razumijevanje genetičkog rizika

Do intolerancije laktoze dolazi kada se enzim koji razgrađuje mliječni šećer (laktaza) ne proizvodi u količinama dovoljnim za razgradnju laktoze. Istraživanja su pokazala da je ta smanjena proizvodnja enzima laktaze, a samim time i rezultirajuća netolerancija laktoze, najčešće povezana s promjenom na samo jednoj poziciji unutar gena MCM6. Na toj poziciji unutar navedenog gena može biti prisutan citozin (C) ili timin (T), gdje je citozin povezan s netolerancijom na laktozu, dok je timin uzrokom tolerancije na laktozu. Molekularne metode (DNA metode) koje se primjenjuju za testiranje netolerancije laktoze temelje se na detekciji citozina ili timina na određenoj poziciji unutar gena MCM6. Iako je tu detekciju moguće izvršiti koristeći različite molekularne metode, za razliku od pirosekvenciranja, većina tih metoda tehnički je vrlo zahtjevna i skupa, a neke su i nedovoljno specifične.

Test se provodi za utvrđivanje genetičke predispozicije primarne deficijencije enzima laktaze. Ovisno o informativnosti za pojedinu populaciju, analizira se 5 različitih polimorfizama MCM6 gena. Kao oposlijedica evolucijske prilagodbe povezane s potrebom konzumacije mlijeka, učestalost intolerancije laktoze se razlikuje među populacijama (intolerancija laktoze je češća u Aziji, Africi, među Indijcima i stanovnicima Mediterana nego u zemljama zapadne i sjeverne Europe: gotovo 100 % intolerancija kod Azijata, a kod Skandinavaca <5 %).


Testing is important because in case of a positive result, adequate diet can solve the problem. In case of negative result, lactose intolerance can be eliminated as cause of digestive problems and other tests should be performed in order to associate the symptoms to another diagnosis (secondary cause of maldigestion of lactose is injury of small intestinal mucosa due to celiac disease, infectious enteritis, Crohn’s disease, persistent diarrhea, resection, cancer chemotherapy and ionizing radiation).


Which testing types are available?

Several types of lactose intolerance tests are available, but most of the tests are often exhausting and painful because they are invasive or based on provoking symptoms, and are often less sensitive and insufficiently specific.

These problems are not common for pyrosequencing method so it provides for reliable results. This method is not based on identifying the symptoms and consequences of intolerance, but rather reveals the cause of the problem itself – genetic predisposition related to the symptoms. It undoubtedly reveals whether there is a genetic basis for a possible manifestation of intolerance or not. Detecting the genetic basis for intolerance before the symptoms appear is important because diet modification can help to avoid the symptoms.


How does DNA testing for lactose intolerance work?

The test is performed by DNA analysis from a buccal swab sample and the test is 100% effective.

The sampling procedure is painless and it takes only 10-15 seconds.


Understanding of genetic risk

Lactose intolerance occurs due to the low activity of the enzyme lactase which breaks down lactose. Studies have shown that this insufficient activity of lactase is most commonly associated with a change in only one position within the MCM6 gene. Cytosine (C) or thymine (T) may be present in this position, where cytosine is associated with lactose intolerance, while the thymine is associated with lactose tolerance. Molecular methods (DNA methods) that are used for lactose intolerance testing are based on the detection of cytosine or thymine at a particular position within the MCM6 gene. Although this detection can be done using different molecular methods, unlike pyrosequencing, most of these methods are technically very demanding and expensive, and some are not sufficiently specific.


Price of the Lactose Intolerance DNA Test:

Determination of 5 genetic polymorphisms related to lactose intolerance
(LCT-13907C→G, LCT -14010 G→C, LCT-13910C→T, LCT -22018 G→A i LCT-13915T→G)    90,00 EUR

Determination of one genetic polymorphism   30,00 EUR

Prices are per one sample.

Order form is available here.

Price list is available here.

 

 

 

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