DNA profiling is determining an individual’s DNA characteristics, called a DNA profile. It is most commonly used to identify an unidentified person or confirm person’s identity, or to place a person at a crime scene or to eliminate a person from consideration. It can be used in case of subsequent/additional analysis as supplementation of existing paternity or other kinship DNA test result. The DNA profile provides indisputable evidence of genetic identification and can be used in a large number of cases, for example:
- DNA and legacy issues (cases where one person needs to prove their relationship to another alleged relative)
- comparison and verification purposes (in cases of disputed previous DNA testing, where there is doubt about individuals that have submitted their samples for genetic DNA)
- child safety DNA identifications (resolving cases of lost or kidnapped children)
- in immigration disputes
- for individuals operating in high-risk environments
- insurance issues
- in cases of natural disasters, accidents, terrorist attacks, etc.
- resolving cases of potential substitution of biological samples (e.g., formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples with and without carcinoma diagnosis)
Paternal lineage-based kinship analysis
Paternal lineage-based kinship analysis can be determined by analysis of the short tandem repeats (STRs) on Y chromosome. This sex chromosome is passed on from father to son, so all male relatives share the same markers on the Y chromosome i.e., they have the same Y -STR profile. Mutations (random substitutions of a single nucleotide) may occur but that happens spontaneously and very rarely.
Y chromosome testing can be used in cases of indirect determination of paternity of a male child when the alleged father is not available (he is deceased, he is missing or he will not submit to the test). In such cases a direct male relative (alleged father’s brother, grandfather, uncle, or any other male relative of the alleged father) can replace alleged father. It can also be used for kinship between brothers, grandfathers, male grandchildren, etc.). This includes cases when:
- male siblings want to confirm whether or not they have the same biological father
- adopted male children looking for either their real biological fathers or male family members (Y chromosome test is used in order to include or exclude potential fathers/relatives)
- legal proof of relationship between males, such as legal cases or cases of immigration, is required
Human semen traces from a variety of samples (clothing, bedding, vaginal swabs, prophylactics, and stained surfaces) can be detected by using the RSID ™ -Semen Test (Rapid Stain Identification of Human Semen, Independent Forensics, USA). The RSID ™ Seed is an immunochromatographic strip assay that uses two monoclonal antibodies specific for human semenogelin. Semenogelin is a protein produced by the seminal vesicles and is responsible for the coagulum associated with ejaculate.
DNA extraction is mainly performed for research purposes or at the request of a party whose DNA extract will be used for molecular diagnostic testing which is the basis of personalized medicine, for example:
- determination of genetic predisposition for a particular disease or disorder with the purpose of a timely and targeted prevention and / or treatment
- evaluation of the treatment outcomes in order to reduce the inefficiency of the treatment (pharmacogenetics).
Often, these analyzes are not available in Croatia, so the DNA extracts are sent abroad.
For DNA extraction, 3 mL of whole blood in vacutainer tube containing EDTA anticoagulant (purple cap) is required. It is best if the blood is delivered immediately after it has been taken. Otherwise, it should be stored at + 4°C for several hours or at -20°C for longer period of time. To make appointment for blood taking, please call +385 1 2352 660.
Price list is available here.